2K7 Water Soluble Pak


2-Bromo-2-Nitropropane-1,3-Diol is a highly effective biocide. This product is packaged in a 1 kg water-soluble bag to minimize exposure to the bactericide. Typically a 0.1 kg/m3 treatment is sufficient to control the growth of bacteria within the mud system.

Alcomer 74


This is a low molecular weight anionic polymer used as a thinner / dispersant.  This small anionic polymer will neutralize charge imbalances just like Desco CF.  The use of both Alcomer 74 and Desco CF is an excellent way to pretreat clay based drilling fluids prior to drilling anhydrite and lessens the flocculation effects.

Alkapam 1003D


A high molecular weight non-ionic (equal amount of positive and negative charges) phpa polymer.  Sometimes used when “stripping” solids from a drilling fluid (area / fluid specific).

Alkapam 1103D / 1703D


Used as flocculating polymer when floc water drilling.  After solids are coagulated with the addition of calcium, these high molecular weight anionic polymers attach themselves to the solids and increase the sedimentation rate.  Both polymers are anionic (negatively charged).

Alkapam 1803D


A high molecular weight cationic phpa polymer.  Sometimes used when “stripping” solids from a drilling fluid (area / fluid specific).

Aquatreat H2S


Is an amine blend for scavenging H2S in water based mud systems. The product is fully soluble and a 2 L/m3 treatment can scavenge approximately 500 ppm of Hydrogen Sulfide.

Barite


Barium sulfate is an inert material used to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to control abnormal pressure or to help stabilize pressurized shale’s.

Bentone 150


A wet process organophyllic clay used to provide viscosity in Matrix’s Invert emulsion drilling fluid system. This clay is easily dispersed providing exceptional rheology. Bentone 150 is the benchmark used when comparing organophyllic clay performance.

Bleach


Sodium Hypochlorite 12% bleach at lower concentrations is a cost effective way to kill bacteria. Typically 1 – 2 L per 15 m3 treatment is made to kill any bacteria in the make-up water. If a water source contains heavy organics a higher concentration may be required. Unlike biocides; bleach is oxidized when reacting with the bacteria and organics.  This allows the fluid to be more easily land-spread.

Calcium Carbonate


This acid soluble material is generally mixed in various sizes to control lost circulation.  Being acid soluble the product can be formation damage friendly in zones of interest, unlike the cellulose fibers which are not fully acid soluble.

Can-Free


Is a blend of surfactants designed to dissolve drilling fluid filter cakes.  Can-Free is mixed into oil and used as a spotting fluid when differentially stuck.  The spotting fluid reduces the hydrostatic pressure in the well bore in addition to breaking apart the filter cake.  After allowing the spotting fluid to soak for a couple of hours the pipe may be jarred and worked free.

Caustic Soda


Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), is used to provide pH (hydroxyl ion OH-) in the drilling fluid.  Having hydroxyl ions will facilitate the hydration of added bentonite and all polymers.  The optimum pH range for drilling fluid additives is 8.5 – 9.5.  If there are corrosion concerns, the pH is raised further.  Common sources of corrosion include; carbon dioxide, oxygen, H2S and salt.  The pH may also be raised to help control bacteria or to aid in preventing the oxidation of added polymers in high temperature environments.

Cellophane


This is a blend of multi-sized polycellulose flakes.  Cellophane is often used as a sealing agent supplement to other lost circulation material in water based drilling muds.  It is also a basic additive in cement slurries, providing a matting effect to control cement losses to the formation.

Chem-Break ECA


An enzyme designed to break down (oxidize) both cellulosic polymers (PAC / HEC) and starch polymers (Matrix FL / Stardrill / Aquastar Ex).  This product is commonly added into either fresh or produced water at the completion of a horizontal well in order to remove the drilling fluid filter cake (composed of polymers) and any polymer fluid in the near wellbore region.  Acid and bleach can also be used to oxidize the polymers but are corrosive and dangerous to handle, making enzymes more attractive.

Citric Acid


Anhydrous citric acid is a weak organic acid used to reduce the pH of the drilling fluid.  Generally mixed on horizontal wells after drilling out the intermediate casing cement.  The acid will neutralize the pH (hydroxyl ions) from green cement.

Corinox


A blend of filming phosphonate and oxygen scavenger designed to prevent corrosion of the drill pipe.  This product is commonly used in the drilling fluid when corrosion is a concern.  Unlike filming amines, the product will absorb onto metal surfaces and not the drilled solids.

Defoamer


An alcohol based defoamer used to control foaming in mud systems.

Defoamer Silicone


Is a 10% silicone suspension.  This product is commonly used as a pretreatment to the drilling fluid in order to prevent foaming from the addition of materials that are prone to cause foaming in mud systems.  Products prone to foaming include sulfonated ashphaltenes such as Soltex and liquid lubricants.  If there is already foam present in a mud system it is more effective to use an alcohol based defoamer or to reduce the gel strengths of the mud system with a dispersant such as Desco CF.

Desco CF


Desco CF is a chrome free tannin based thinner / dispersant.  This product is added in order to thin the drilling fluid’s viscosity.  The drilling fluid is generally thinned after casing has been set and about to be cemented.  By thinning the fluids viscosity, the cement can more effectively bond to the well bore due to a more easily removed filter cake.   Desco is also added as a pretreatment in clay based mud systems prior to drilling into formations that can cause flocculation of the mud and undesirable mud properties; such as very high viscosity and fluid loss.  Common contaminants include anhydrite (soluble calcium) and salt (chlorides).  Desco being a small anionic charged material will neutralize charge imbalances from the contaminants and de-flocculate clays.  Larger concentrations of Desco will disperse the drilling fluid and allow the drilling of contaminants without flocculation effects.

Drilling Detergent


A wetting agent designed to prevent the formation of mud rings when drilling surface hole.  This product is generally added directly down the drill pipe upon connections at 1 – 2 liters per connection.  Unlike TKPP, this product will fail the microtox test at lower concentrations (>0.075 L/m3).

Drispac Regular / Superlo


Used for fluid loss control, these are linear polyanionic cellulose polymers.  Drispac Regular is a longer chained polymer and will impart more viscosity (funnel viscosity and yield point) to the drilling fluid.  This polymer will be easily broken with enzymes such as Chem-Break ECA.  Note; the polymer does not impart suspension properties (gel strengths).

Envirofloc (Calcium Nitrate)


A very soluble calcium source (5Ca(NO3)2·NH4NO3·10H2O) used to promote primary coagulation when “floc water” drilling.  Envirofloc contains nitrogen and has loading limits when landspreading while drilling (LWD); as per Directive 50. Calcium Nitrate can also be used to prepare weighted brines for work-overs or completions.

Enviroplug


Bentonite pellets used to control lost circulation on surface hole.  When losses are substantial on surface hole, Enviroplug is added directly down the hole after pulling out the drill pipe.  Fresh water is also added in order for the bentonite to hydrate and swell.  The hole is then normally top filled with conventional LCM and allowed to stand for the sealing effects to take place.

Gilsonite HT


An ashphaltene product which can be added to both water and oil based mud systems.  In inverts Gilsonite is added to provide seepage loss control and reduce the HTHP fluid loss.  In water based mud systems, Gilsonite is insoluble and is added for seepage loss control into fractures.  By mechanically reducing losses to fractures, this product can also aid in well bore stability.

Glass Beads


Solids glass spheres made of high grade glass. The beads are chemically inert, free of impurities and environmentally friendly as per Directive 50. Glass Beads Medium will pass through a 60 mesh screen; Glass Beads Fine will pass through a 100 mesh screen.

Graphite Powder


Graphite can be used to help seal micro-fractures and stabilize troublesome shale formations. Unlike other shale stabilization additives; Graphite is deemed to be environmentally friendly as per Directive 50 and will not affect the fluids disposal.

Gypsum


This is another source of calcium for floc water drilling.  Gypsum CaSO4.2H2O is not as soluble as Envirofloc  but also does not pose the same disposal concerns as per Directive 50.

HEC-10


Hydroxy ethyl cellulose is used to provide viscosity in both fresh water and brines.  It is generally used on horizontal wells where an enzyme will be used at the wells completion to break-down the filter cake and any polymer fluid in the near well bore region.  HEC being a cellulosic linear polymer is easily oxidized by enzymes such as Chem-Break ECA.  This polymer is also susceptible to bacterial degradation.

Humalite


This is a coal like substance very similar to lignite used in drilling fluids as both a thinner and for secondary fluid loss control.  Unlike Desco CF and Alcomer 74, Humalite requires the presence of hydroxyl ions from Caustic Soda to be most effective as a thinner.

Hydrated Lime


Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) is a source of both hydroxyl ions and calcium.  Most often used in the treatment of carbon dioxide.  The hydroxyl ions convert carbon dioxide to carbonates and the calcium will precipitate out the carbonates as calcium carbonate. CO2 + 2OH- --> CO32- + H2O
CO32- + Ca2+ --> CaCO3

Hyperdrill 204RD


Generally used as a flocculating polymer when floc water drilling.  After solids are coagulated with the addition of calcium, this high molecular weight anionic polymer attaches itself to the solids and increases their sedimentation rate.  Hyperdrill 204RD can also be used for inhibition (shale encapsulation), however; due to it being a larger molecular weight polymer as compared to Hyperdrill 247RD, it is more difficult to properly hydrate (takes longer to hydrate).  If this polymer is not properly hydrated prior to its addition into a mud system it can “blind” the shaker screens and cause the drilling fluid to run over the shale shaker.  Hyperdrill 204RD is anionic (negatively charged) and similar to Alkapam 1103D, a high molecular weight flocculating polymer.

Hyperdrill 247RD


A phpa polymer (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) designed to provide shale encapsulation and thereby help prevent the hydration of water sensitive shale’s.  As compared to other phpa polymers, Hyperdrill 247RD has a lower molecular weight and as a result is able to disperse and hydrate easier in water based drilling fluids.  This polymer is not effective for floc water drilling due to it having a lower molecular weight.

Hyperdrill AE851


A liquid suspension of phpa (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) in mineral oil.  This product is packaged in 20 L pails.  Given that the phpa is already dispersed in the mineral oil, the product will mix more easily into the mud system.  Commonly used when the mixing equipment available on the rigs is limited and the product is less likely to blind the shaker screens. There is not as much product in a pail as compared to the phpa packaged in sacks (approx. 35% active ingredient). This phpa has a high molecular weight and can be used for flocculating drilled solids while floc water drilling and for shale stabilization (encapsulation).

Hyperdrill CP 911


A high molecular weight cationic phpa polymer.  Sometimes used when “stripping” solids from a drilling fluid (area / fluid specific).

Hyperdrill NF 301


A high molecular weight non-ionic (equal amount of positive and negative charges) phpa polymer.  Sometimes used when “stripping” solids from a drilling fluid (area / fluid specific).

Kelzan XCD


Xanthan Gum biopolymer is used for viscosity.  Being a high molecular weight branched polymer, small concentrations will provide exceptional suspension properties.  This product can be used in combination with gel or on its own for rheology.  Xanthan Gum is a natural polymer and is susceptible to bacteria degradation.  On longer duration wells when relying on Xanthan Gum for rheology, it will be necessary to monitor for bacteria and treat with biocide as required.

Lignite


This is a naturally oxidized coal known as Leornardite, used in drilling fluids as both a thinner and for secondary fluid loss control.  Unlike Desco CF and Alcomer 74, lignite requires the presence of hydroxyl ions from Caustic Soda to be most effective as a thinner.

Magma Fiber


Magma fiber is a spun mineral fiber which is 97.3% soluble in 7.5% HCl, thus making this product ideal for lost circulation when damage to the producing formation may be a concern.  Magma Fiber is effective for healing losses when used in conjunction with sized calcium carbonate (also acid soluble).

Magnesium Oxide


MgO is used to buffer the pH of a drilling fluid at 10.  At a pH below 10 this product will dissolve and bring the pH back up to 10.  The additive must be mixed in excess for the buffering to take place.

Matrix FL


This is a derivatized starch which is added to provide fluid loss control.  Derivatized starches such as Matrix FL also impart extra lubricity to a drilling fluid. The Microtox threshold for this product is 7 kg/m3, which is greater than some of the other starches; allowing for the product to be more easily land-spread.

Matrix Mul


An Oil Mud Emulsifier used in formulating the Matrix Invert emulsion drilling fluid system. This emulsifier is a blend of surfactants providing both primary and secondary emulsion stability and oil wetting properties.

Matrix PAC


Matrix PAC is the same chemically as Staflo and Drispac.  Used for fluid loss control, this is a linear polyanionic cellulose polymer.  This polymer will be easily broken with enzymes such as Chem-Break ECA. The polymer does not impart suspension properties (gel strengths / low end rheology).

Matrix Shield


Matrix’s amine used to provide inhibition for water sensitive shale’s / clay minerals through the process of cation exchange.  This tiny polymeric molecule has amine groups at each end capable of exchanging with sodium ions on clays.  Unlike salts such as potassium chloride, this product can be land-spread at concentrations up to 57 L/m3.

Matrix Wet


A blend of surfactants designed for use with Matrix Mul in formulating Matrix’s Invert fluid system. Matrix Wet effectively coats all the solids and improves the fluids rheology.

Matrix Xan


Xanthan Gum biopolymer is used for viscosity.  Being a high molecular weight branched polymer, small concentrations will provide exceptional suspension properties.  This product can be used in combination with gel or on its own for rheology.  Xanthan Gum is a natural polymer and is susceptible to bacteria degradation.  On longer duration wells when relying on Xanthan Gum for rheology it will be necessary to monitor for bacteria and treat with biocide as required.

Natural Gel (Bentonite)


This is pure sodium montmorillonite which has not been treated with Soda Ash to remove calcium montmorillonite impurities or have minor amounts of polymer added (peptized).

Petro-Mod


A liquid “low-end” rheology modifier that works synergistically with Matrix’s other Oil Mud products. Petro-Mod provides “flat” gel strengths giving our Invert exceptional shear thinning properties. This allows for greater suspension properties without an appreciable increase to the pump pressure on the rig. Petro-Mod also enhances the Emulsion Stability and HTHP fluid loss control.

Potassium Chloride


KCL is used to provide inhibition to water sensitive shale’s while drilling and also in completions to prevent swelling of clay minerals in “dirty” sandstone reservoirs.  Being a salt, potassium chloride cuttings must be taken to a government approved landfill and the fluid either re-used or disposed of in a cavern or landfill.

Potassium Silicate


KSilicate is used to provide inhibition for water sensitive shale’s primarily in the foothills.  Silicate will gel at a pH below 11 providing a “glass” film on the wellbore (polymerization).  Silicate will also precipitate in the presence of calcium and magnesium.  The potassium ion K+ will also react with clays through cation exchange.

Prima Seal


Fibrous material used in conjunction with Sawdust and / or Cellophane to heal losses on surface holes.

Safe-Kote


Filming amine used on sour wells to coat the drill pipe and protect from corrosion.

Salt Gel (Sea Mud)


This is hydrous magnesium silicate (sepiolite) and can be used as a viscosifier in saline mud systems or at higher temperatures.  Adequate shear through the drill bit is required for the viscosity to be established.

SAPP


Sodium acid pyrophosphate, a very powerful thinner/dispersant used to help break apart and prevent the formation of mud rings on surface hole.  Cementing companies will use SAPP water spacers when cementing in order to remove the drilling fluid filter cake.  Being an acid and its ability to react with calcium, SAPP can also be used to treat cement contamination.  Due to the higher concentration of sodium with this product, lower concentrations are being used due to disposal concerns.

Sawdust


Sawdust is used to control losses on surface hole.  Also an economical additive while floc water drilling to help seal micro-fractures and porosity in the upper hole.

Soda Ash


Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) is used to treat out calcium either from mudding up using floc water containing elevated concentrations of calcium ion or drilling into anhydrite stringers.  When drilling into larger quantities of anhydrite it is desirable to “gyp-over” the mud system or use a polymer based fluid which does not react negatively to calcium.  Mixing too much soda ash can pose disposal concerns when land spreading.

Sodium Bicarbonate (Bicarb.)


NaHCO3, is used to treat out calcium contamination due to cement.  Having a lower pH as compared to Soda Ash (8.3 versus 12) it also helps in lowering the high pH from cement.

Sodium Sulfite (catalyzed)


This is an oxygen scavenger used to impart better temperature stability to the added polymers.  At higher temperatures >75oC, polymers will begin to degrade (oxidize) by treating out dissolved oxygen there is better longevity.

Staflo Regular / Ex Lo Supreme


Staflo is the same chemically as Drispac.  Used for fluid loss control, these are linear polyanionic cellulose polymers.  Staflo Regular is a longer chained polymer and will impart more viscosity (funnel viscosity and yield point) to the drilling fluid.  As such, we use Staflo Regular on shallow gas wells due to its’ higher viscosity.  This polymer will be easily broken with enzymes such as Chem-Break ECA.  Note; this polymer does not impart suspension properties (gel strengths).

Stardrill


This is a derivatized starch which is added to provide fluid loss control. Derivatized starches such as Stardrill also impart extra lubricity to a drilling fluid.

Sulphamic Acid


Is commonly used to reduce the pH of the drilling fluid prior to its disposal.  This acid can also be mixed into the mud system to reduce the pH when drilling out intermediate cement when it is planned to continue drilling with the system on the next hole section.  The high pH from cement is undesirable as it will “burn out” the polymers.

Super-Sweep


A fiber additive designed to increase a fluids suspension and hole cleaning capabilities without increasing the fluids viscosity. The carrying capacity of the fluid is increased mechanically with this synthetic fiber. Typical treatments are at 0.5 – 0.7 kg/m3.

T-352


Glutaraldehyde used as a biocide to kill bacteria that can degrade natural polymers such as Xanthan gum.  This biocide can be de-natured at lower concentrations by raising the pH to 12 with Lime then reducing back down to neutral levels (pH 7) with Sulphamic Acid.

TKPP


Tetra-potassium Pyrophosphate, an effective thinner/dispersant, is used to help break apart and prevent the formation of mud rings on surface hole.  TKPP will also treat out the calcium ion. Unlike SAPP, TKPP passes the microtox test at higher concentrations (microtox threshold of 15.6 kg/m3).

Ultra Seal


Ultra Seal is a blend of specific micro-sized cellulose fibers, combined with a blend of organic polymers and lubricity enhancers.  Ultra Seal is effective at reducing seepage losses to the formation when drilling with invert.

Xanvis


Xanvis is a clarified, completion grade, xanthan biopolymer used to provide the necessary rheology when drilling with polymer mud systems.

Zinc Carbonate


Zinc carbonate is used as a H2S scavenger; it will react with sulfides to precipitate out zinc sulfide in an irreversible reaction.